The most significant destabilising factor in modern nations is the inequality of ethnic (racial) groups.
The disruption caused by such inequalities in the USA and South Africa has darkened the histories of these countries for decades. The same destabilising issues are found throughout Africa where tribalism has undermined the ability of African nations to create cohesive national cultures.
The inability of groups of different ethnic identity to live together side by side, in peace, has caused more deaths and more wars than any other factor in human history.
Except in nations which were created by the former colonial powers, where geography and the presence of other foreign powers determined where boundaries were located, ethnicity has always been a key factor in determining tribal or national boundaries.
Even within nations, ethnicity has a significant influence on the distribution of population in communities. Solving the problem of ethnic integration and inequality is one of the key issues facing nations across the world.
Chapter 24: Societal Mastery